Wednesday, April 19, 2017

The uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto

In April-May 1943 an event occurred on the territory of the Warsaw ghetto, which until now remains virtually unknown. This is an insurrection, which initiated the chain reaction of the uprisings raised by the Jews in Poland. Moreover, the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto was the first armed intervention in the German-occupied Europe. What was the purpose of this revolution? What did the insurgents rely on against the heavily armed SS men? Was there a chance to survive? This will be discussed in the present article.


The story of this uprising will be rightly begun with a short excursion into the pre-war history of Poland. In 1918, on the wreckage of the Russian, German and Austro-Hungarian empires, after 123 years of nonexistence, the Polish state revived. The interwar Poland, unlike Poland's modern, was, perhaps, the most diverse in the religious and ethnically respected country of Europe. The title nation - the Poles - was about 68% of the population. The remaining 32% were Ukrainians, Jews, Byelorussians, Rusyns and other nationalities.

In Poland, as in all inter-war Eastern Europe, the so-called "Jewish issue" was especially acute, and this period is full of various excesses connected with attempts to resolve it. Roman Dmowski, former deputy of the State Duma of the second and third convocations, and later leader of the Polish National Democratic Party (Endecja, ND), was one of the ideologists of Polish nationalism and anti-Semitism. His party advocated the exclusion of Jews from the political and public life of the country. Combat groups of the PDP Roman Dmowski took part in Jewish pogroms, boycotts of Jewish shops, and anti-Jewish demonstrations, often taking the form of a torchlight procession.

February 2

                                                               Roman Dmowski

The situation changed in 1926, when the Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, a Socialist, came to power in Poland as a result of the "May coup" in Poland, the most loyal of Jews among all national minorities. The situation of the "Poles of the Jewish faith" (just such a term for Jews was introduced during the population census) has improved noticeably. A new wave of anti-Semitic actions began after the death of Marshal Pilsudski in 1935.

For the sake of justice, it is worth noting that, unlike Hitlerite Germany, in Poland, the crimes committed against Jews were punished with all the severity of the law. The police stopped Jewish pogroms, and the perpetrators were brought to trial. Also, the professors of Warsaw, Lviv, Vilnius and other universities, as well as a large part of the intelligentsia as a whole, were strongly critical of anti-Semitic statements.

At the beginning of the Second World War (September 1, 1939), the Jewish population of Poland was 3.5 million people. The most "Jewish" city of the country was Warsaw, where about 350 thousand representatives of "Poles of Jewish origin" lived. In late September 1939, after a two-week siege, the city was taken by the Germans. On October 5 of the same year, on Pilsudski Square, a military parade was held in honor of the victory that the Fuhrer personally hosted. The Jewish population was in mortal danger.

The beginning of the occupation: the creation of a ghetto

Already in the first months of the occupation, all Jews were required to wear a recognition mark - the star of David. In Holocaust films, these recognizing signs almost always have the shape of an armband with a blue star. In fact, this did not always look like this. Such bandages were used in Warsaw, but in other Polish cities, most often Jews wore breastplate patches in the form of a yellow Star of David.

An interesting fact is that the Poles willingly wore such armbands in the first months of occupation. All because at that time the entrance to Germany Jews was categorically forbidden. Thus, Jews could not be taken to forced labor in the Reich. That is why to avoid the fate of "Ostarbeiters," some Poles went on the track and wore armbands with the Star of David or even memorized the hotel phrases in Yiddish.

March 3

                                                 The Warsaw Ghetto Plan

The new owners of occupied Poland, now officially named General Gubernia, immediately set about creating a ghetto in the major cities. The largest ghetto was established in Warsaw. In the first months of the occupation, all Jews who were at that time in the capital of Poland and its environs were ordered to register with the new authorities. Later, Jews from all over occupied Europe and from Germany began to be taken to the Warsaw ghetto. After registering and obtaining new, occupational identification cards (Kennkarte), the Jews, regardless of their previous residence, were moved to the Jewish quarter of Warsaw, which is located in the center of the city. Thus, about 100,000 Poles, who received the Jews' apartments, and about 130,000 Jews, were resettled.

Initially, Jews were allowed to walk freely around the city. There were only a few places where Jews were forbidden to appear. This was the so-called "German Quarter," where German military and civilian officials of higher rank were quartered. The entrance to the Poles there was also limited - only for special passes. On the streets of Warsaw appeared trams "Nur für Juden" ("Only for the Jews"). The Star of David also designated such teams.

Already at the end of 1939, the Germans created the so-called Judenrat - the Jewish Council, which became the official authority of the Warsaw ghetto. The head of this council was appointed engineer Adam Chernyakov. This body under a different name existed before the war, but it had very different functions. All the orders of the German authorities were now issued on behalf of the Judenrat, creating the appearance of the Germans' non-participation in the logical process of exterminating the Jewish population.


                                             Group photo of Jewish policemen

In the
department of this body, there was also the Jewish police (Jüdischer Ordnungdienst), engaged in maintaining order in the ghetto. The first commissar of the Jewish police was Józef Šeryński, a semi-criminal element, a Jew by birth, who in his youth changed his faith in the Catholic faith and was a consistent anti-Semite to the end of his life. It is worth noting that the "Aryan" part of Warsaw had its police, which, because of the characteristic color of the uniform, called the "grenade" (Policja Granato). In its ranks the Poles served.

Restrictions for Jews

Since the beginning of 1940, the Germans have gradually tightened repressive measures towards Jews. In January, a decree was issued banning Jews from baking and selling bread in the ghetto. Later this prohibition spread to all food products.
All bank accounts of Jews were blocked. The maximum wage was established for Jews - about 250 zlotys (a loaf of bread in the spring of 1940 cost 10 zlotych, and in the summer of 1942 - 40 zł).

The ghetto was surrounded by wooden fences and barbed wire. In the same year 1940, Jews were forbidden to leave the ghetto without special permission. The penalty for violation of this order was imprisonment. Subsequently, the Jews were forbidden to use trains.

April 4

                                         Warsaw Ghetto in May 1941

In the autumn of 1940, to prevent the penetration of Jews into the "Aryan" part of Warsaw, the Germans decided to enclose the ghetto with a stone wall 3.5 meters high. Supervised the construction process was the same Judenrat headed by Adam Chernyakov.

For the building of the wall used bricks, obtained during the dismantling of residential and household buildings in the ghetto. Despite the fact that a large number of buildings in the ghetto were dismantled for this purpose, some of the construction materials still had to be purchased from the Germans,
and for the money collected by the Judenrat from the ghetto residents themselves. The construction of the wall, under the watchful eye of the Polish police and SS soldiers, was the work of the Jews themselves.

Thus, by order (de jure) of Jews, by the hands of the Jews and on Jewish money, a wall was built, which concluded 450,000 Jews on four square kilometers. On average, there were ten residents per Warsaw apartment ghetto. On the perimeter of the ghetto, there were entrance gates, guarded by Jewish police and SS men. Any attempt at an unauthorized exit from the ghetto opened fire to defeat. The ghetto passed into an autonomous mode of existence. The trap snapped shut. In terrible cramped and unsanitary conditions, people tried to survive.

Despite the tiny size, the ghetto was divided into two parts - small and large. Between them was located the street of the Aryan part of Warsaw. Initially, there should be no communication between the two parts of the ghetto. Subsequently, the Germans allowed building a wooden bridge, passing over the wall and connecting the two parts.

May 5

                                                   It's the same, then

The social structure of the residents was clearly expressed from the first day of its existence. Elite ghettos (if such a concept is appropriate) were members of the Judenrat, police officers, as well as some wealthy Jews from among the pre-war bourgeoisie. The situation of these population groups was relatively good. Especially for them, colonial goods, white bread, confectionery, kosher meat, fresh vegetables, and fruits were brought to the ghetto from the Aryan part, and entertainment institutions - drinking and even patience homes - worked.

A little later, another category of people joined the elite: the owners of the funeral services bureau. This type of activity was very much in demand in the Warsaw ghetto since the death rate at the turn of 1941-42 reached catastrophic proportions. The leading cause of death was not famine, but typhus, which became widespread because of unsanitary conditions. Most of the funeral was financed by the Judenrat since most of the people trapped in the ghetto just could not afford to pay them. In this case, the relatives carried the bodies of their dead to the street.

Early in the morning, along with several deserted streets, several horse carriages were traveling at once, collecting the naked bodies of the deceased, whose clothing was filmed either by relatives or by passers-by in the hope of selling or exchanging it for food. Often, people passing by these naked bodies covered the unfortunate with old newspapers. Many people, exhausted with fatigue and hunger, fell dead right on the street, but no one paid any attention to them - it became too familiar a picture to touch anyone.

The position of hired workers attached to employers on the Aryan side was also bearable. Despite the meager salaries, they could legally leave the ghetto. Such people had the opportunity to exchange goods of any value for necessities - food, medicine, hygiene, etc. Soon the Germans realized their omission, which many were mistaken for some indulgence. To prevent the export of valuables from the ghetto, as well as the penetration of food, the Germans regularly searched several randomly selected workers who were leaving or returning to the ghetto. In the case of finding "smuggling," the convicted were shot on the spot.

Workers who were employed in the territory of the ghetto itself were divided into categories. The first (highest) division was made up of a few representatives of the "free professions": accountants, barbers, doctors who entered the service to the Germans. Such people for a time smiled at fate. They lived most often in separate apartments, with unlimited access to goods that are scarce in the ghetto, like bread, meat, and butter.

The second category included several thousand Warsaw Jews, employed in factories owned by great German entrepreneurs. At the mill of Robbins and Schulz, for example, uniforms were produced for the German army. Also on the territory of the ghetto was a plant for the production of brushes with adjoining barracks for workers. They were regularly given food rations, as well as salaries, though slight. The owners of the factories tried to avoid personnel turnover as much as possible since this had a detrimental effect on the quality of the manufactured products, which made the status of employees relatively stable.

All the above categories of people had, according to the order of the occupation authorities, the so-called "work cards" (Arbeitskarte). The availability of a permanent job card was a great success since only its availability could ensure survival in conditions of limited access to essential goods. Unfortunately, most of the inhabitants of the ghetto did not have any cards. Such people included hospital attendants, orphanages and shelters (the most famous guardian of one of the orphanages in the Warsaw ghetto was Janusz Korczak - a doctor, publicist, former officer of the tsarist army, participant in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905), workers of few Shops of manufactured goods, street cleaners, etc. These people were interrupted by accidental earnings, and their situation was tough. Work for them served as a cover only. Their real occupation was most often the organization of illegal deliveries of scarce goods to the ghetto.

June 6

                                                    Janusz Korczak

At the very bottom of the hierarchy of the Warsaw ghetto were the so-called "wild people." The so-called Jews who were hiding from the Germans had no documents. When such people were found, they were transferred at best to the Gestapo, and at worst - shot on the spot.

On the territory of the ghetto was also the famous prison Pavlik (derived from the name of the street - Pavia). There were brought not only Jews, but also Poles. Ominous rumors followed bloody massacres of prisoners of this place.

Between November 1940 and July 1942, about 100,000 people died of hunger, disease and periodic punitive operations. There were not enough places in the full Jewish cemetery even for common graves. From time to time in the ghetto, information about the Wehrmacht's defeats on the eastern front was siphoning off, which allowed its residents to perk up a little.

Despite the appalling conditions of existence, no one seriously considered organizing an armed resistance to the Germans. Also, the occupation authorities managed to implement the old principle - Divide et empire. The ghetto was a very socially disconnected structure, where everyone tried, first and foremost, to ensure the survival of themselves and their family members.

Employees of the Judenrat and the Jewish police were the most hated inhabitants of the ghetto. Their privileged position and indirect connection with the occupation authorities played a role in creating public opinion. There was no unanimity among the youth. Pre-war Jewish youth organizations often had mutually exclusive views. Even in a world war, none of them wanted to compromise in the name of fighting a common enemy.

Grossaktion - liquidation of the ghetto

Meanwhile, in January 1942, a conference was held in Berlin, where the Germans approved the doctrine of Endloesung - the final solution of the Jewish question, according to which all the Jews of occupied Europe were to be destroyed. Elimination of Polish Jews was recognized as a top priority. Thus, the liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto has become a matter of time.

The first messenger of impending terrible events in the Warsaw ghetto was a series of seemingly spontaneous punitive operations by the Germans. Under cover of night, the SS entered the ghetto, led people out of their houses and shot them, leaving the bodies to lie on the spot of execution. And the victims of these operations were representatives of the so-called "elite" of the ghetto - wealthy people and members of Judenrat, who until then were sure of their inviolability. Now it became clear that none of the ghetto prisoners could feel safe.

On July 22, 1942, SS Commissioner Herman Golfe summoned the chairman of the Judenrat Adam Chernyakov, informing him of the beginning of the operation, codenamed Grossaktion. Golfe demanded from Chernyakov to inform the population of the Warsaw ghetto about the beginning of the "resettlement of the able-bodied population to the east." The minimum daily quota of immigrants was to be 10 thousand people, regardless of gender and age. What mattered was the ability to work for the benefit of Germany.

From the order for "resettlement" members of the Judenrat, police officers (for some time), as well as workers of German factories located on the territory of the ghetto, were excluded. Nevertheless, Chernyakov refused to sign the proclamation. Most likely, he guessed that this was not about resettlement, but about the destruction of Jews. The next day Chernyakov committed suicide, leaving a suicide note in which he wrote that he could not sign the death sentence to his people.

July 7

                                                   Adam Chernyakov

Despite the suicide of Chernyakov and his refusal to sign the proclamation prepared by the Germans, the action of liquidating the ghetto began without delay, on July 22. On the first day to the east, about 10 thousand people left.The end-point of the "resettlement" was a death camp Treblinka 2, where accidents are waiting for death in the gas chambers, followed by cremation, but this was known only to the Germans. Subsequently, the daily deportation quota has reached 18 thousand people - 3 full train staff on the day.

Selection and loading people into cars was carried out at a place called Umschlagplatz (German Umschlagplatz -. «Staging post"). The selection was a mere formality by which the Germans tried to convince the Jews that they are being taken for forced labor, and not to the death camp. Some people, to avoid deportation, expressly applied to self-harm.

Performing "Daily Value" of deportation is the responsibility of the Jewish ghetto police. Each officer was obliged to lead on Umschlagplatz certain number of people on a daily basis. In the case of non-daily allowance of deportation subjected family members of the police. That is why the order of the Germans carried out with particular zeal.

Initially, the primary method was the so-called blockade: the police cordoned off a house or an entire city block, broke into the apartment, basement, and attic, bringing everyone they're caught on the Umschlagplatz. Three months shares of liquidation of the Jewish police began to hate more than the Germans themselves. In late August, even such coercive measures have ceased to bear fruit - in the Umschlagplatz led fewer people.

August 8


Then the Germans went on to another trick - the issuance of three kilograms of bread and one kilogram of marmalade all Jews voluntarily agreed to deportation. This measure proved to be very effective. Hunger has become a real scourge for the inhabitants of the ghetto. That is why the prospect of such a large number of fresh bread and marmalade, after several years of living on the brink of starvation was stronger than the fear of dying in the gas chamber. "If we were being taken to death, is it would give so much bread ?!" - this opinion was common at the time.

Meanwhile, in the ghetto from the Aryan part of the city began to filter information about the Treblinka. Postmaster-Pole, a member of the Home Army, reported that compounds with people walking in the direction of the camp, and returned empty. Treblinka was a dead-end station. There were no trains also supply food or medicine. Also, the Home Army intelligence denunciations that the camp area is only a few hectares, and accommodation for more than 200 thousand taken out of the Warsaw ghetto (and not only) of the Jews is not possible. Finally dispelled all doubts compositions loaded with clothing and footwear, returning from there. It became apparent, Treblinka - a death camp.

This news has not made the proper impression on the inhabitants of the ghetto. People continued to go to the Umschlagplatz in the hope of getting the cherished three kilograms of bread. Nobody wanted to believe that this is a trap. Grossaktion lasted until 21 September 1942. During this time the Germans were able to take in about Treblinka 270,000 Warsaw Jews. Ghetto population was reduced to about 70 thousand inhabitants.

September 9

                                               Memorial at Treblinka

In the latter part of extending to Treblinka, Jewish police officers appeared in 2500. Use them for their purposes; the Germans decided to get rid of them, leaving alive some 250 police officers who were supposed to maintain order in the ghetto. A huge number of empty houses - whole neighborhoods extinct. Subsequently, the Germans reduced the area of ​​the ghetto, to his small part, in which there were factories, commandant of the Jewish police, Umschlagplatz and the building of the Judenrat. No joy associated with the end of the elimination action was not ghetto inhabitants were aware that the Germans were sure to come back and will complete the job.

The birth of the resistance movement in the Warsaw ghetto

Already on July 28 on the sixth day from the date of commencement of the liquidation, in the ghetto, there was still only a semblance of resistance movements - the Jewish Fighting Organization (Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa). It includes representatives of several warring youth gangs, "the Anti-Fascist Bloc" and "Bund" - the Socialists, "Hashomer Hatzair," "Dror" and "Tsukunft" - Zionists. Later joined the organization and members of the Polish Workers' Party (Communists), and the right of the Zionists, "Poalei Zion."

Parallel structure to create a rule group "Beitar" - Jewish Military Union (Żydowski Związek Wojskowy). It consisted of former officers and privates of the Polish Army. Founded in October 1939, the EMU did not take any active steps until the start of the liquidation of the ghetto. Unfortunately, the role of EMU in the uprising, there is virtually no reliable data. It is known that a small part of EMU militants left the ghetto at the end of April 1943. Their fate remains unknown to this day.

October 10th

                                                       flag ZOB

In October 1942, he took shape command of the Jewish Fighting Organization. At its head stood a 24-year-old Mordehay Anelevich, who arrived in Warsaw during the liquidation of the ghetto. He was a member of the Zionist group "Hashomer Hatzair." In previous years, Anielewicz was actively engaged in the creation of the Jewish resistance movement in the south of occupied Poland. Also Anielewicz, in command of the Organization included Marek Edelman of the "Bund," Yitzhak "Antek" Zuckerman of the "Dror" Hersh Berlin of "Poalei Zion" and Michal Rosenfeld of the Workers' Party of Poland. Later it took place Zuckerman Trivia Lubetkin - representative of "Dror."

The purpose of the Organization was an uprising in the ghetto and the application of the enemy as much as possible damage, as well as the elimination of the worst traitors to the Jewish people (it was about the members of the Judenrat and the staff of the Jewish police in the ghetto). Initially, the organization is up to two hundred fighters, divided into groups of 10 people, led by their commander. Each battle group was responsible for a particular section of the ghetto. Thus, the organization was established, but its members were poorly armed and not trained. Few of them were behind in the army, and that very unit took part in the hostilities. The Polish Home Army recognized November 11 Jewish Fighting Organization.

Despite the fact that the Germans almost did not appear in the ghetto, access to him was still restricted, all inputs and outputs are carefully guarded. Therefore, to deliver weapons to the rebels future was a tough task. Also, the command of the Home Army, despite the recognition of the Organization, is very skeptical of the idea of ​​transfer of even small quantities of weapons to the Jews since the uprising in the ghetto, in any case, it was doomed to failure. Therefore, members of the Organization have tried to get their weapons.

November 11th

                                         Mordehay Anelevich, photo 1938

For this purpose, Anielewicz network of agents was established on the Aryan side, which included not only Jews, but also Poles. One of the first "intelligence" on the Aryan side was Itzhak Tsukerman. Zuckerman looked perfect - blond hair, blue eyes, non-Semitic form, small nose, short, his appearance did not fit under any of the criteria of the "typical Jew." Suspected of a Jew, it could only be by his accent - Isaac was born from Vilna (today the capital of Lithuania - Vilnius), and the focus of Vilna Jews at that time was easily recognizable.

Here the reader might ask: "How did the Germans know how it sounds Vilna accent?". And here we come to another very unpleasant and almost unknown episode of the war - the issuance of Polish blackmailers of Jews by the Gestapo. Such people are called shmaltsovnikami (Polish «Szmalcownicy» -. Blackmailers). During the war, this kind of earnings has been very popular among the marginalized members of the Polish society. Around the ghetto constantly on duty group of blackmailers who tried to surprise going out illegally from the ghetto Jews. These people blackmailers under pain of issuing the Gestapo took away all the money and jewelry.

Those who had nothing to give as a payoff, most often killed on the spot or taken to a Gestapo (Gestapo issued for each hiding a Jew owed a fee). When the movement has become blackmailers rampant throughout Poland, the command of the Home Army decided to make him the death penalty called "Polish Underground» (Polska Podziemna). Several hundred blackmailers were liquidated.

The first action

So, Antek Zuckerman became the first connected the Jewish Fighting Organization on the Aryan side. In November 1942, he was able to get from the Home Army 10 guns to the ghetto fighters. Anielewicz was furious to learn that negotiations on the supply of arms, which lasted several weeks, met with party supplies ten old guns without ammunition. Zuckerman himself in his memoirs called it a manifestation of anti-Semitism.

Realizing that the more damage will be done to the Germans, the less reason to be in the Home Army for refusing to supply new weapons, the Jewish Fighting Organization decided to act. First Nations action took place more September 21, 1942 - an attempt on the chief of the Jewish police Józef Szeryński. The contractor was appointed Israel Channel. The assassination attempt failed: Józef Szeryński survived and ordered to double your guard. Get close to him became impossible again. Next victim of retaliation became Deputy Józef Szeryński - Jakub Leikin. This time fortune smiled on the members of the Organization, and one of the most hated people in the ghetto was eliminated October 29, 1942.

The next action of the Jewish resistance was held in Krakow on 22 December. Her party has itself Antek. In the cafe, where German officers were resting, a grenade was thrown, with the result that 10 of them died. The attack made on the leadership of the Army Krayvoy memorable. General Grot-Stefan Rowecki agreed to transfer to the ghetto another batch of pistols and ordered one of his officers to conduct with members of the Jewish Fighting Organization instructed in sabotage and demolition work. In the ghetto, hastily prepared caches, caches, underground passages between the cellars, attics connected. Preparing for an armed uprising was in full swing.

December 12

                                                         Genrih Gimmler

January 9, 1943, the Warsaw ghetto was visited by Reichsfuhrer Himmler. The commander of the SS forces in Warsaw, Colonel Ferdinand von Sammern, told his boss that about 40 thousand Jews are working in German factories in the territory of the ghetto. The rest are staying there illegally. Learning of this, Himmler ordered the quick clean up the ghetto of "wild inhabitants," and by April 20, Hitler's birthday, do Warsaw "free of Jews» (Judenfrei).

Early in the morning January 18, 1943, around the ghetto began to focus SS soldiers. This was reported to Anielewicz. It became apparent - the Germans are preparing another protest liquidation. News of this immediately spread through the ghetto. The streets were deserted, the people hid in pre-prepared shelters. Entering the territory of the ghetto, the Germans began, quite indiscriminately, regardless of the presence of workers of cards, display them all captured Jews to Umschlagplatz. The panic started.

Time to make a decision about the beginning of the uprising was not, Anielewicz and decided to take a desperate step. Taking advantage of the general confusion, the crowd of people going to the cars, joined a group of fighters of the Jewish Fighting Organization. And here, at the corner of Zamenhof low and, unexpectedly for the Germans, shooters opened fire on them with pistols. Several SS men fell dead, bleeding to death, others were so confused that for a minute did not respond to fire on him. Recovering himself, the SS opened heavy fire. It started a real street fight.

Unfortunately, except for the effect of surprise, at the Jewish fighters did not have any advantages over the Germans. The Jews, led to the Umschlagplatz, began to scatter in different directions, trying to hide from the bullets. The leader of the militant groups Mordehay Anelevich grabbed one of the German Machine and firings, took refuge in one of the courtyards of the Low Street, along with three other militants of the organization.

13 13

                                                                   leaflet ZOB

After several unsuccessful attempts to smoke a group Anielewicz from their hiding place, the Germans decided to set fire to the house. The fire killed all its inhabitants, but by the militants managed to escape. During this rash step, which cost the lives of hundreds of people, Anielewicz wanted to withdraw from the post of commander of the Jewish Fighting Organization, but it never did.

Skirmishes with the SS occurred in other parts of the ghetto. Jews used guns, knives, home-made hand grenades and even rushed to the Germans with their bare hands. Such a development was not expecting anyone. According to official figures, about 14 soldiers of the SS killed in the shootings of Jews. Instead of the originally planned 10 thousand Jews to the Germans managed to take in Treblinka half - about 5000. Another 1,100 people were killed in street fighting or fire arranged by the Germans in Low Street.

However, the German Command decided to suspend liquidation share. This was the first moral victory of the Jews in occupied Europe. For the first time since September 1939, organized Jews took up arms and fought back the enemy.

On the eve of the big uprising in the ghetto

In the period from January 21 to April 19, 1943, The Jewish Fighting Organization was the absolute master of the ghetto. Using the fact that the Germans are no longer carried out surprise raids and counter-insurgency operations, the militants have moved into action. The primary objective of the organization was to obtain the largest possible number of weapons, ammunition, gunpowder, casings for hand grenades, and other things necessary for the conduct of street fighting.

Already at the end of January in the ghetto, it was transferred to a new batch of weapons from the Home Army - 50 pistols and two rifles. Manufacture of hand grenades had been established, which is a huge set was made. However, half of these weapons misfire in combat. Another formidable weapon of insurgents were "Molotov cocktails," which are also produced in large quantities in the cellars of the ghetto.

After January events in the Organization wanted to start a large number of new members. Anielewicz was ready to accept everyone but lacked weapons. Then Command decided to spend a few expropriations - pick up the money to buy weapons from the wealthy residents of the ghetto. Such methods the organization managed to produce about 2 million zlotys. Victims of expropriations were mostly members of the Judenrat and the owners of funeral parlors.

At the
station square "Aryan" Warsaw, where during the occupation of the market is, you can find sellers willing to sell any weapons. Gun on the black market cost from 3 to 5 thousand zlotys, a rifle - about 10 thousand. But there was little to find the seller and have enough money. It was important not to cause any suspicion from the seller. As already described above, the issuance of Polish Jews by the Gestapo was, unfortunately, a very common practice during the war. Therefore, the representative of the Organization was to "look good" (at that time it meant not to have a pronounced Semitic appearance) and speak Polish without a Jewish accent. One of these agents was still alive Shimon Ratayzer dubbed "Kazik." Born and raised in Warsaw, Kazik, as Antek had blond hair and "Aryan" features, but other than that, still perfectly spoke Polish.

14 of 14

                                                                      Jewish bunker

Apart from Kazik and Antek on the Aryan side was a network of agents of the Jewish Fighting Organization. They were not only the purchase of weapons but also conducted negotiations with representatives of the Polish Home Army and the People's Guard (Communist military formation, which became later a part of the People's Army), searched for safe houses for hiding on the Aryan side of the Jews.

By April, the Aryan part of Warsaw was covered with a network of agents of the Jewish Fighting Organization. Hundreds of appearances, passwords, changing on a daily basis (and sometimes several times a day). Kazik was able to do a thing is impossible - to find a trusted person ... to the Gestapo. This contact has helped to pull out of the clutches of the German secret police, a lot of individuals. It managed to establish continuous delivery of the ghetto and kerosene propellant required for the manufacture of hand grenades and "Molotov cocktails," to make a few deliveries of dynamite. Bribing "garnet police," which for a small amount were willing to look the other way, coherent way into the ghetto, bringing the necessary ammunition. In late March, militants have rejoiced in the ghetto was transferred the batch of rifles, two machines mr-40, as well as a machine gun and a large amount of ammunition.

Each house was turned into a fortress. At least four square kilometers area of ​​the Warsaw ghetto was more than six hundred bunkers and shelters. Some of these shelters could be offline for months or even years. They are abundant supplies of food were collected, had access to drinking water, conducted ventilation and sanitation, working generators that produce electricity. In this bunker could be, without interfering with each other, about 80 people. According to the system of underground tunnels could be moved to different parts of the ghetto, while remaining unnoticed.

15 of 15

                                                               Another bunker

The inputs to the factory brushes were mined. On the alleged route of the SS, forces were set up observation points and five points. In the cellars and bunkers instruct new members. They were taught to handle weapons, move silently, throwing grenades from different positions and other things needed for guerrilla warfare in a large city.

In parallel with the preparation of an armed uprising in the ghetto took action retaliation traitors of the Jewish people. Militants organization dealt with the survivors of the Jewish police showed particular cruelty during the deportation. Their belongings and weapons confiscated.

By mid-April 1943 the Jewish Fighting Organization had at its disposal 20 well-equipped battle groups of 10 people each. Also available at Anielewicz and his commanders were about three hundred poorly armed militants, whose role in the uprising was planned auxiliary, but in fact turned out to be critical.

Their finest hour was at hand.
This is Baron John Scott-Ellis - a representative of an ancient British aristocratic family. It was 1931, the young John was staying in Munich, and he was bored. To dispel anguish, he decided to buy himself a red car and immediately roll him through the streets of the German city together with his German acquaintance. A pleasant summer day facilitated the journey, and everything was wonderful when suddenly a pedestrian came under the wheels of the red Fiat and was shot down. Fortunately, the blow was not high, the pedestrian was shaken off, and the German friend settled everything. This time, DA RED is not GOEZ FASTA!
"Do you know who it was?" Asked a friend.
"Of course not," John replied.
"This is our famous politician, he has his party, his name is Adolf Hitler."
Years later John loved to tell this story and noticed that in those seconds he could change History.
So the fairy tale is finished, but who listened - well done.
The famous photo of David Rubinger - it depicts Yitzhak Itath, Zion Karasanti, and Haim Oshri - three Israeli paratroopers of the 2nd company of the 66th battalion of the 55th Parachute Brigade standing at the Western Wall after the liberation of Jerusalem on June 10,
Forty years later, an English journalist found them and photographed practically at the same place.

The author of the photo, David Rubinger, "national photographer of Israel," died on March 2, 2017.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Traces of devils

Ladies and gentlemen, let me welcome you and present to your court one of the stories that have occurred in my life. I write for the first time, so please do not abuse the request.
In my neighbors, there was one elderly couple: grandfather and his wife. Children they did not have, they lived alone. In our village, these two were not loved and tried not to get involved once again. Everyone was chatting about them. They say grandmother witchcraft did not disdain. Grandfather all called: Vista-Vanya. This nickname interested me. I asked about this old man about the old people, and that's what they told me.
During the war, this grandfather had a brother. He fought well, was repeatedly awarded, but did not live to win. Whether in the war he died, or something else happened. But that's not the point. Assigned this grandfather the documents of his deceased brother. So he lived all his life under a false name, being considered a veteran and getting a good pension.
Grandma also believed that the day lived in vain if someone did not quarrel. How much she drank blood from my family, it's terrible to say. Then this is not so, then that. Because of her slander, the district police officer was a frequent visitor. If she did not swear at us, she sawed her grandfather. We called her "fence radio". In general, people were far from angelic in nature. Now, in fact, the story itself.
This happened in early January. The night before it was snowing, and by the morning it covered the entire earth with an even layer. Waking up about six o'clock in the morning and going out to smoke, I saw a chain of footprints walking along the neighboring fence. It would Seem, traces and traces, that here such. And yet they attracted me with some kind of incorrectness. When you live in a village from a small age, you do not pay much attention to it, but these looked somehow wrong.
Approaching them, I saw traces that strongly resemble hooves. Hoofs, in winter, in a completely fenced yard, where the offspring did not have anything larger than cats. The layer of snow was about fifteen centimeters thick, and these tracks were pressed into it by about a third. And the snow was quite fluffy. It was not scary, it was rather curious, and, having made up my mind, I followed the tracks, to see where they were coming from.
However, it was not necessary to go far, and very soon I came to its beginning. The trail appeared near the gate to the backyard, a feeling that just arose from nowhere. Here is the beginning of the chain at the feet, and all around, where there is enough sight, lies untouched snow. Then he passes through my yard, goes to the neighbor's fence, goes along it about five meters and, jumping over the fence, reaches the wall of the neighbor's house and disappears. There are no reverse traces. Throwing out the cigarette butt and going home, I told what I saw, to my parents and went to school. And in the evening, after returning home, I found out that this night my neighbor was dead.
It's worth saying, I'm not going to argue that or who it was, just a little sketch of life. These traces were still seen by ten people, not counting me and my parents.
I can only assume, if not to be a skeptic, then they say that if you found traces of hooves near your house (similar to those described by the author) - this means that at night there devils danced. In such a case, so that it is not for them to enter into your yard, it would be necessary to drive a nail into one of the tracks. 

Monday, April 17, 2017

An interesting story, mystical character, it is quite real and told to real people.

My friend works as an investigator with my husband, he told me. There lived in our city a prostitute, her profession was not shy. She lived alone with her son, only her sister from relatives. A white wig arrived at the station, a short skirt, red boots, and boots, and took the bus to the main road to get to work. Back there was a ride or a ride, somebody would come back on foot. The city was small, there was no taxi at that time. Found her body mutilated, mutilated in the same place, on the track. They began to investigate, to question all, though, without much zeal, nobody loved her, women spied on the trail, the peasants mocked, insulting words screamed in the trail, her son was called in the school. He called this sister to him on the agenda, my sister kept silent, said, they say, I do not know anything, but then I began to talk.
Two days before her death came Tanya to her face clean, unpainted, a dress modest to the knees. Come on, she says, Anya put up with me, I know, because of me you're ashamed to walk around the city, people to look into the eyes. Let's go with you to the notary public, I'll write a power of attorney to you, I did not spend money, I saved everything on the book. In trouble I got, if anything happens to me, do not throw Dimka my book on him and study, and things, and enough food. He has no one but you, but do not give it to the orphanage.
Story: I go last night quietly from the gas station, the wagon with the lights off is catching up with me. Hand, as usual, pulled, thumb down to show. He stops next to me, well, I'm in the cab, I say cheerfully: why do not you turn on the lights, through the three villages the GAI post and say what can I do and for how much. I looked at the peasant, the appliances burned, the light fell on my face. She was even horrified - her face was pale, her eyes were black, and they were falling and burning. I suddenly became so frightened, I feel horror, I must salt, I think, and back to the gas station to run. And he says to me: do not need your services, let's get to the house. My tongue is speechless, I'm like under hypnosis in the seat of the village, the cab door slammed shut. Let's go, he's silent and I'm silent, the cold sweat runs down my back, my mind is beating in my brain, why I do not ask where I live, maybe I know, no, in the city I know everyone, not ours and I did not serve him, I would remember that. I think, to dump, a crazy thought flashed, I will open the door and jump out, but I myself can not move, as if paralyzed. I sense a sixth sense of danger from him, I think I must deceive him, to say that he stops me in a crowded place. I calmed myself, I think that I was frightened, and I did not meet them like that, I always took the peasants into the market, I'll find the answer to any insulting word. We reached the turn to our city, he stops, he says further you will reach it yourself, but I have to go. I seem to have let go, my legs trembling from the car, I got out and ran into the city, and he started the car and went on the road. I'm thinking that at least one companion would be caught, I'll give the money myself if only I was taken home. I go and feel that someone is following me, I can not hear footsteps, how many times I turned around, there is no one. Already to the house to come, it turned sharply, with a flashlight the light falls, and behind a silhouette of a man's silhouette. Well, I can not open the door, my hands are shaking, I do not get the key, I think if I attack I'll be a good mother, I'll wake Dimka, I'll scare. I went into the house, closed the locks, I did not turn on the light immediately to the window. About an hour by the window stood, all peered into the street did not appear. Suddenly, this cotton in the kitchen, I almost fell down without feeling. Quietly go there no one. The curtain closed the light turned on, I can not find the cause of the sound. I raise my head, the icon fell. On the stool stood up, straightened and let's pray. I went to bed, I can not fall asleep myself, I've reviewed my whole life, I think I'll do it, I'll have money for work, but at least a technical one.
Anya tells her enough fool to play, what a notary, you and 30 do not. And then what you want to tie, it's good. To work I will help to get a job, only likely problems will be, you, in fact, everyone knows. The next day I did not see her, but she said that she would not go there anymore, and my son said that they lay down to sleep in the evening, my mother did not intend to go anywhere. And in the morning the body was found on the track.
They made an identikit, asked for queries everywhere, thought the maniac works, but there were no similar cases. And the policemen who worked that night said that from noon to one o'clock in the morning, not one wagon passed. One more hanging.

Hello, you are on my blog, its themes, mysticism, science, politics and just stories or my thoughts. Forgive me for being so formal, I hope you find it interesting.